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Melanocyte Stem Cell Activation and Translocation Initiate Cutaneous Melanoma in Response to UV Exposure

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell White and colleagues define the critical early steps of melanoma development from adult melanocyte stem cells. Although stem cell quiescence can work as a tumor suppressor in cutaneous melanoma formation, UV radiation can initiate melanoma formation from these quiescent melanocyte stem cells via an immune-dependent process.

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The Primate-Specific Gene Marks Outer Radial Glia Cells and Promotes Cortical Expansion and Folding

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Wang and colleagues show that the primate-specific gene TMEM14B marks a subset of human neural progenitors and induces cortical folding, providing insights into human brain evolution. Expressing TMEM14B in the fetal mouse brain increases proliferation of progenitor subsets and cortical thickening through nuclear shuttling of IQGAP1, which promotes G1/S transitions.

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The Primate-Specific Gene Marks Outer Radial Glia Cells and Promotes Cortical Expansion and Folding

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Wang and colleagues show that the primate-specific gene TMEM14B marks a subset of human neural progenitors and induces cortical folding, providing insights into human brain evolution. Expressing TMEM14B in the fetal mouse brain increases proliferation of progenitor subsets and cortical thickening through nuclear shuttling of IQGAP1, which promotes G1/S transitions.

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via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Mouse Cutaneous Melanoma Induced by Mutant BRaf Arises from Expansion and Dedifferentiation of Mature Pigmented Melanocytes

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell The precise cellular origin of cutaneous melanoma has been a topic of intense debate. Using a refined mouse model that faithfully recapitulates key histopathological features of early stages of human melanomagenesis, Köhler et al. report that melanoma can arise from mature, pigment-producing melanocytes located within the interfollicular epidermis.

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MYC Controls Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Fate Decisions through Regulation of Metabolic Flux

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Cliff et al. show that, contrary to prior understanding, a metabolic switch away from glycolysis is not a required step for human pluripotent stem cell differentiation, and that, in fact, differentiation to ectoderm requires maintenance of high glycolytic flux via MYC/MYCN activity, indicating its role as a developmental regulator.

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Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Functional Lung Alveolar Epithelial Cells

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Jacob et al. differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into type II alveolar cells (iAEC2s). They find that iAEC2s display many of the functions, transcriptomic features, and surfactant-processing capacities that characterize primary cells. Finally, they derive AEC2s from gene-edited, patient-specific PSCs to model surfactant protein B deficiency in vitro.

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Jak1 Integrates Cytokine Sensing to Regulate Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function and Stress Hematopoiesis

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Selective JAK1 inhibition has emerged as a potential strategy for treating autoimmune and hematological diseases. Levine and colleagues show that Jak1 integrates multiple cytokine signals in normal and malignant HSCs to regulate their self-renewal and quiescence, highlighting further potential therapeutic benefits and risks of Jak1 inhibition.

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Engineering Ethics and Self-Organizing Models of Human Development: Opportunities and Challenges

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Incorporating engineering ethics early during the planning stages of organoid and gastruloid research may help prevent future confusion about the moral status of complex models of human development. However, the intrinsic self-organizing behavior of organoids and gastruloids may pose a slight challenge to this novel ethical approach.

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Generation of Mouse and Human Organoid-Forming Intestinal Progenitor Cells by Direct Lineage Reprogramming

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Miura and Suzuki describe direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts to cells resembling fetal intestine-derived progenitor cells that can give rise to intestinal stem cell organoids and reconstitute injured colonic tissues after transplantation. They also show that a similar approach can work to make human induced intestinal progenitor cells.

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Nup153 Interacts with Sox2 to Enable Bimodal Gene Regulation and Maintenance of Neural Progenitor Cells

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Toda et al. demonstrate that the nucleoporin Nup153 interacts and cooperates with Sox2 to regulate the cellular state of neural progenitor cells. Nup153 binds both the 5′ and 3′ ends of genes, and the direction of gene regulation by Nup153 varies with the binding position of Nup153.

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