Archive | December 2016

Induction of Expansion and Folding in Human Cerebral Organoids

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell The growth and structural formation of the human cortex can be modeled in vitro using cerebral organoids. In this article, Li, Muffat, and colleagues show that enhancing the PTEN-AKT signaling pathway leads to the generation of human cerebral organoids that are expanded in size and display surface folding.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2iJiR44
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

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A Quiescent High Stem Cell Population Is Required for Maintenance of the Mammary Gland

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Bcl11b interacts with cell-cycle regulators to induce a quiescent state. Cai et al. describe a quiescent mammary stem cell population labeled by Bcl11b and located at the luminal-basal interface that supports mammary gland regeneration. Bcl11b sustains this population by inducing cell-cycle regulators that promote the dormant state.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2ht7KHr
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Lipid Desaturation Is a Metabolic Marker and Therapeutic Target of Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Cheng and colleagues using Raman spectroscopic imaging find that ovarian cancer stem cells contain unusually high levels of unsaturated lipids and show evidence that this metabolic difference could be used as a marker for these cells and as a new target for CSC-specific therapy.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2iJdp1s
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Injury-Induced Senescence Enables In Vivo Reprogramming in Skeletal Muscle

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Li and colleagues reported that tissue damage enables in vivo reprogramming in skeletal muscle, which can arise from muscle stem cells. They also show that damage-induced cellular senescence promotes cellular plasticity through release of secreted proteins, including IL-6. Their findings could have implications for developing therapeutic lineage reprogramming strategies.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2ijQMwd
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Analysis of Transcriptional Variability in a Large Human iPSC Library Reveals Genetic and Non-genetic Determinants of Heterogeneity

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Using large-scale analyses of over 300 iPSC lines, Chang, Quertermous, Lemischka, and colleagues of the NHLBI NextGen consortium examine sources of gene expression variation between lines and illustrate how this approach can identify genetic and non-genetic drivers relevant to line variation with implications for iPSC characterization and disease modeling.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2ifJ7mr
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Patient-Specific iPSC-Derived Endothelial Cells Uncover Pathways that Protect against Pulmonary Hypertension in BMPR2 Mutation Carriers

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell As part of the NHLBI NextGen consortium, Gu et al. report protective mechanisms of potential therapeutic significance in unaffected BMPR2 mutation carrier (UMC) iPSC-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs) versus iPSC-ECs from family members with pulmonary arterial hypertension (FPAH). Their findings about changes in specific regulators could inform future therapy development.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2ifMvhh
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Adaptive Chromatin Remodeling Drives Glioblastoma Stem Cell Plasticity and Drug Tolerance

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Liau et al. find that glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) reversibly transition to a slow-cycling, persister-like state following RTK inhibitor treatment. The persister state is marked by redistribution of repressive chromatin, upregulation of neurodevelopmental programs, and dependency on KDM6. Thus, cancer cells may hijack chromatin reorganization for proliferation, adaptation, and tolerance.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2gPibbj
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Noncoding RNA Competes with in the Control of X Chromosome Activity during Human Early Development

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Rougeulle and colleagues show that, in human pre-implantation embryos and naive human embryonic stem cells, the lncRNAs XIST and XACT accumulate together on active X chromosomes. Functional data suggest that XACT restrains XIST activity before the initiation of X inactivation takes place.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2hSk9oS
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Human Naive Pluripotent Stem Cells Model X Chromosome Dampening and X Inactivation

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Plath and colleagues study the epigenetic state of the X chromosomes in naive female hPSCs and discover that it closely, but not perfectly, resembles the X chromosome pattern of pre-implantation blastocysts. The naive state enables de novo X inactivation upon differentiation and thus can provide a model for studying X chromosome regulation in human cells.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2hS79Q8
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

A Multi-step Transcriptional and Chromatin State Cascade Underlies Motor Neuron Programming from Embryonic Stem Cells

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Mazzoni and colleagues show that transcription factor-directed programming of ESCs to motor neurons involves two distinct regulatory modules that converge when programming TFs are relocated by the activity of factors induced in the earlier stage of the process.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2hkeXy3
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN