Archive | November 2016

Neurogenic Radial Glia-like Cells in Meninges Migrate and Differentiate into Functionally Integrated Neurons in the Neonatal Cortex

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Carmeliet and colleagues have identified a population of radial glia-like neural progenitor cells located in the meninges of postnatal mice. After birth, these cells migrate through the caudal ventricular zone and then differentiate into functional and integrated neurons of the posterior cortex.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2frylXW
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Cell-Type-Specific Chromatin States Differentially Prime Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tumor-Initiating Cells for Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Latil and colleagues show that tumor phenotypes and propensity for EMT are dictated by cell-type-specific chomatin and transcriptional states of the cancer cell of origin. These findings provide insight into mechanisms through which chromatin landscapes and gene regulatory networks prime tumor-initiating cells to undergo EMT.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2fry47c
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

The p53 Family Coordinates Wnt and Nodal Inputs in Mesendodermal Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Massagué and colleagues show that the p53/63/73 family is essential for mesendoderm specification in embryonic stem cells. The p53 family transcriptionally activates the Wnt pathway in human and mouse ESCs to coordinate Wnt-Tcf and nodal-Smad inputs for mesendodermal differentiation of ESCs in vitro and in the embryo.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2frAdQb
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

DNA Methylation Dynamics of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell As part of the IHEC consortium, Bock and colleagues present genome-wide reference maps of DNA methylation dynamics during human blood development. The characteristic DNA methylation patterns they see in the different cell types allow data-driven inference of an epigenome-based model of hematopoietic differentiation. Explore the IHEC web portal at http://ift.tt/2gczkgR.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2gmtyt3
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Cardiac Fibroblasts Adopt Osteogenic Fates and Can Be Targeted to Attenuate Pathological Heart Calcification

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Pillai et al. demonstrate that cardiac fibroblasts adopt bone-forming cell fates and induce ectopic calcification. ENPP1, an enzyme that regulates bone mineralization, is induced in cardiac fibroblasts after injury. Administration of ENPP1 inhibitors or inhibitors of bone mineralization significantly decreased pathologic cardiac calcification and augmented cardiac function.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2fZIjyl
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Two-Way Conversion between Lipogenic and Myogenic Fibroblastic Phenotypes Marks the Progression and Resolution of Lung Fibrosis

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell El Agha et al. use genetic engineering in mice to identify precursor cells for activated myofibroblasts and investigate their fate in a reversible model of lung fibrosis. Their findings emphasize the phenotypic plasticity of lipogenic and myogenic lung fibroblasts and indicate that PPARγ agonists might be beneficial in treating IPF.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/2fZETvp
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Conversion of Terminally Committed Hepatocytes to Culturable Bipotent Progenitor Cells with Regenerative Capacity

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Katsuda et al. report reprogramming of mature hepatocytes into expandable bipotent progenitors, CLiPs, using small molecules. CLiPs substantially repopulate injured mouse livers, suggesting the potential clinical application of this approach.

from Cell Stem Cell http://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/fulltext/S1934-5909(16)30347-2?rss=yes
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Functional Human Oocytes Generated by Transfer of Polar Body Genomes

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Ma et al. show regeneration of functional human oocytes through polar body transfer into enucleated oocyte cytoplasts. In addition to providing proof of principle for this process, the approach could be helpful clinically for some forms of infertility and genetic disease.

from Cell Stem Cell http://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/fulltext/S1934-5909(16)30341-1?rss=yes
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Myogenic Progenitor Cells Control Extracellular Matrix Production by Fibroblasts during Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Stem cells interact with the surrounding extracellular environment to facilitate tissue plasticity. Fry and colleagues report that skeletal muscle myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) secrete exosomes containing miR-206, which regulates fibrogenic cell collagen expression through repression of Rrbp1. MPC-mediated regulation of the muscle extracellular environment is necessary during early myofiber growth.

from Cell Stem Cell http://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/fulltext/S1934-5909(16)30304-6?rss=yes
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN