Archive | March 2016

2D and 3D Stem Cell Models of Primate Cortical Development Identify Species-Specific Differences in Progenitor Behavior Contributing to Brain Size

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Based on modeling of cortical neurogenesis with pluripotent cells in 2D and organoid systems, Otani et al. suggest that species-specific differences in cortical size and cognitive ability between human and other animals result at least in part from cell-autonomous differences in cortical progenitor proliferation before neurogenic differentiation.

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Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell The recent outbreak of Zika virus and the association with fetal abnormalities including microcephaly represents a global health emergency. Kriegstein and colleagues survey the expression of candidate Zika virus entry proteins to suggest that high AXL expression in neural stem cells may render this population selectively vulnerable to viral infection.

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TGF-β Inhibition Rescues Hematopoietic Stem Cell Defects and Bone Marrow Failure in Fanconi Anemia

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Zhang and colleagues identify hyperactive TGF-β signaling as a mechanism of bone marrow failure in Fanconi anemia (FA). They show that inhibition of TGF-β signaling promotes survival of FA HSPCs, restoring their function. These studies lay the foundation for testing TGF-β inhibitors as therapeutic agents for FA.

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Suppression of the SWI/SNF Component Promotes Mammalian Regeneration

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Sun et al. show that deleting Arid1a a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex component, promotes regeneration in the mouse liver and outer ear after surgical and chemical insults. Arid1a loss improves organ function and enhances proliferation after injury by restricting chromatin access of transcription factors that enforce differentiation and repress proliferation.

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Leptin Receptor Promotes Adipogenesis and Reduces Osteogenesis by Regulating Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Adult Bone Marrow

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell A fundamental question concerns how stem cells are regulated by nutrition and systemic energy homeostasis. Morrison and colleagues demonstrate that leptin receptor acts within skeletal stem cells in the bone marrow as a sensor of systemic energy homeostasis, promoting adipogenesis and inhibiting osteogenesis in response to diet and adiposity.

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MLL1 Inhibition Reprograms Epiblast Stem Cells to Naive Pluripotency

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Zhang et al. show that blocking the histone methyltransferase MLL1 with the small-molecule inhibitor MM-401 is sufficient to reprogram epiblast stem cells to naive pluripotency with high efficiency and synchronicity. They further find global redistribution of H3K4me1, causally linking MLL1-dependent H3K4 methylation to pluripotent cell fate.

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Divergent lncRNAs Regulate Gene Expression and Lineage Differentiation in Pluripotent Cells

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Based on broad genomic analysis and specific functional characterization in pluripotent cells, Luo and colleagues suggest that a major class of lncRNAs that is arranged divergently to nearby genes plays a role in transcriptional regulation to fine-tune gene expression and lineage differentiation.

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CD82/KAI1 Maintains the Dormancy of Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cells through Interaction with DARC-Expressing Macrophages

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Hur et al. show that a conserved interaction between CD82/KAI1 on the surface of LT-HSCs and DARC on niche macrophages maintains LT-HSC quiescence through signaling-based inhibition of cell-cycle progression.

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CRISPR Interference Efficiently Induces Specific and Reversible Gene Silencing in Human iPSCs

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell In this article, Mandegar and colleagues utilize CRISPR interference for efficient gene knockdown in iPSCs and their differentiated cell derivatives. The CRISPRi tools and cell lines presented in this study are highly versatile and serve as a useful resource for the cell and stem cell biology communities.

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Cell-of-Origin-Specific 3D Genome Structure Acquired during Somatic Cell Reprogramming

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Krijger et al. report that the reprogramming of four somatic cell types with highly distinct 3D genomes results in pluripotent cells with largely identical, ESC-like, genome conformations carrying founder-dependent topological hallmarks. The latter are not remnants of somatic chromosome topologies but are acquired during reprogramming in a cell-of-origin-dependent manner.

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