Archive | April 2015

An RNA-Containing Negative Feedback Loop Regulates p53-Mediated Apoptosis in Embryonic Stem Cells

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Li et al. show that an ESC-enriched regulatory RNA, Apela, positively regulates p53-mediated DNA damage-induced apoptosis (DIA) of ESCs. Apela, hnRNPL, and p53 form a tri-element negative feedback loop that may help ESCs navigate the balance between maintaining inactive p53 under baseline conditions and eliciting DIA upon DNA damage.

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via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Tex10 Coordinates Epigenetic Control of Super-Enhancer Activity in Pluripotency and Reprogramming

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Using Sox2-centered interactome analysis, Ding et al. identify Tex10 as an evolutionarily conserved key pluripotency factor that plays a critical role in ESC self-renewal and pluripotency, early embryo development, and somatic cell reprogramming via epigenetic regulation of super-enhancer activity.

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via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Filia Is an ESC-Specific Regulator of DNA Damage Response and Safeguards Genomic Stability

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Zhao et al. identify Filia as an ESC-specific regulator of genomic stability that is induced by genotoxic stress. Functional characterization highlights dynamic subcellular translocation and roles in governing multiple DNA damage response pathways, including stimulation of PARP1 enzymatic activity.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/1JbYAaO
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Erosion of X Chromosome Inactivation in Human Pluripotent Cells Initiates with Coating and Depends on a Specific Heterochromatin Landscape

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Rougeulle and colleagues show that XCI erosion in human pluripotent cells is related to a pluripotency-specific epigenomic landscape on the inactive X chromosome, and that coating by the XACT lncRNA and gene reactivation precedes loss of XIST expression during this process.

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via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

β-Catenin Regulates Primitive Streak Induction through Collaborative Interactions with SMAD2/SMAD3 and OCT4

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell In this article, Funa, Schachter, and colleagues et al. provide mechanistic insights into how Wnt signaling controls early cell lineage decisions. β-catenin occupies regulatory regions in numerous PS and neural crest genes, and direct interactions between β-catenin and SMAD2/SMAD3 in proximity to OCT4 binding are required to specifically activate PS genes.

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via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Opposing Roles for the lncRNA and Its Genomic Locus in Regulating Gene Activation during Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Dissection of the precise contribution of RNA transcripts versus genomic DNA sequences is important for functional assessment of long noncoding RNAs. Here, Shen and colleagues demonstrate discrete and opposing roles for the lncRNA transcript Haunt and its genomic locus in regulating the HOXA gene cluster during embryonic stem cell differentiation.

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via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

Vascularized and Complex Organ Buds from Diverse Tissues via Mesenchymal Cell-Driven Condensation

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Takebe et al. report a generalized method for organ bud formation from diverse tissues, including kidney, pancreas, intestine, heart, lung, and brain, using heterotypic cell mixtures including mesenchymal stem cells to guide cell condensation. After transplantation, renal and pancreatic buds are readily vascularized and exhibit tissue-specific organization and function.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/1FXHTz9
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN

ERRs Mediate a Metabolic Switch Required for Somatic Cell Reprogramming to Pluripotency

Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Kida et al. show that upregulation of ERRα or ERRγ is required for a metabolic switch involving OXPHOS that is essential for iPSC generation and that early upregulation of ERRs marks cells that are destined to go on to be reprogrammed.

from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/1aa4e0M
via Bhaskar Chanda UHN